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The Stone Age
The Bronze Age
The Iron Age
Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC)
Indus Valley Civilization (3300 BC - 1300 BC)
Old Kingdom (Egypt, 3000 BC - 2000 BC)
Middle Kingdom (Egypt, 2000 BC - 1300 BC)
Shang Dynasty (China 1600 BC - 1046 BC)
Vedic Period (India 1500 BC - 500 BC)
New Kingdom (Egypt, 1550 BC - 1070 BC)
Zhou Dynasty (China 1200 BC - 500 BC)
Ancient Greece (Greece and Near East, C. 3300 BC- 31 BC)
Jomon Period (Japan 800 BC-400 BC)
Ancient Rome (509 BC-AD 476)
Yayoi Period (Japan 400 BC — AD 300)
Kofun Period (Japan 300 - 600)
Migration Period (Europe 200 - 700)
Coptic Period (Egypt 300 - 900)
Early Middle Ages European (AD 500–1000)
Asuka Period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
Nara Period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
Heian Period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
Kamakura Period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
Muromachi Period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
Azuchi-Momoyama Period (Japan, 538 - 1603)
Southern and Northern Dynasties (China, 420 - 960)
Sui Dynasty (China, 420 - 960)
Tang Dynasty (China, 420 - 960)
Period Of Five Dynasties (China, 420 - 960)
Ten Kingdoms (China, 420 - 960)
Liao Dynasty (China)
Song Dynasty (China)
Jin Dynasty (China)
Western Xia Dynasty (China)
Yuan Dynasty (China)
Ming Dynasty (China)
Classic and Postclassic Eras, Central America (200 - 1519)
Gupta Empire (India)
Pala Empire (India)
Hoysala Empire (India)
Kakatiya Empire (India)
Islamic Golden Age (Islam, 700 - 1300)
High Middle Ages (Feudalism)
European Military Expansion (1000–1450)
Srivijaya History (Indonesia, 3rd Century to 14th Century)
Tarumanagara History (358-723)
Sailendra History (8th & 9th Centuries)
Kingdom Of Sunda History (669-1579)
Kingdom Of Mataram History (752–1045)
Kediri History (1045–1221)
Singhasari History (1222–1292)
Majapahit History (1293–1500)
Chenla History (Cambodia, 630-802)
Khmer Empire History (Cambodia, 802–1432)
Anterior L? Dynasty (Vietnam)
Tri?u Vi?t V??ng (Vietnam)
Third Chinese Domination (Vietnam)
Khúc Family (Vietnam)
D??ng ?ình Ngh? (Vietnam)
Ki?u C?ng Ti?n (Vietnam)
Ng? Dynasty (Vietnam)
The 12 Lords Rebellion (Vietnam)
?inh Dynasty (Vietnam)
Prior Lê Dynasty (Vietnam)
L? Dynasty (Vietnam)
Tr?n Dynasty (Vietnam)
H? Dynasty (Vietnam)
Fourth Chinese Domination (Vietnam)
Early Intermediate (Peru)
Middle Horizon (Peru)
Late Intermediate (Peru)
Late Horizon (Peru)
Late Middle Ages European (1300–1500)
The Renaissance (Europe, 14th Century - 16th Century)
Age Of Discovery (Exploration) (Europe, 15th Century - 17th Century)
Elizabethan Period (United Kingdom, 1558 - 1603)
The Protestant Reformation (Europe, 16th Century)
Jacobean Era (United Kingdom, 1603-1625)
The Age Of Enlightenment (Europe,18th Century)
Tokugawa Shogunate (Japan, 1603 - 1868)
Mughal Empire (India, 1526 - 1857)
Ottoman Empire (Islam, 1299–1923)
Qing Dynasty (China, 1644 - 1912)
Spanish Hegemony (Americas, 16th Century - 1820s)
Spanish Hegemony (Europe, 16th and 17th Century)
Spanish Hegemony (Philippines, 1525 - 1898)
Petrine Era (Russia, 1689 - 1725)
Industrial Revolution (Europe, United States, Elsewhere 18th and 19th Centuries)
Napoleonic Era (1799 - 1815)
Georgian Era (United Kingdom, 1714 - 1830)
Victorian Era (United Kingdom, 1837 - 1901)
Romantic Era (1850 - 1920)
Gilded Age (United States, Late 19th Century)
Edwardian Period (United Kingdom, 1901 - 1910)
Meiji Period (Japan, 1868 - 1912)
Progressive Era (United States, from the 1880s to the 1920s)
Machine Age (1900 - 1945)
Age Of Oil (after 1901)
World War I (Much Of Earth, 1914 - 1918)
Interwar Period (Earth, 1918 - 1939 or 1937)
The Great Depression (Earth, 1929-WW2)
World War II (Earth, 1937 or 1939 - 1945)
Atomic Age (after 1945)
Post-war Era (1946-1962)
The Sixties (1960-1969)
Cold War (Soviet Union and United States, and Their Allies, 1945 - 1989 or 1991)
Space Age (after 1957)
Post-Modern (Soviet Union and United States, 1973 - Present)
Information Age (1970 - Circa 2015)
The Seventies History (1970-1979)
The Eighties History (1980-1989)
The Nineties History (1990-1999)
They were derived from the previous Paleolithic tools, hence the term Epipaleolithic, or were intermediate between the Paleolithic and the Neolithic, hence the term Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age).
We call this period the Stone Age because many of the tools from that time were made from stone - but they were also made from flint, bone, and antler.
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The Yamna culture is a Late Copper Age/Early Bronze Age culture of the Southern Bug/Dniester/Ural region (the Pontic steppe), dating to the 36th-23rd centuries BC. The name also appears in English as Pit-Grave Culture or Ochre-Grave Culture.
…the centuries of the Copper, Bronze, and Iron ages; but these were gradual changes initiated and managed largely internally and at a rate dictated from within.
Copper-arsenic alloys were used throughout mainland Europe and the Middle East during the 'Copper Age', the slow transition from the late Neolithic to the Bronze Age between about 4000 and 2500 BC. These prehistoric 'arsenical coppers' span the period between the first smelting of copper and the development of bronze, which is an alloy of copper and tin.
The era of the Shang and the Zhou dynasties is generally known as the Bronze Age of China, because bronze, an alloy of copper and tin, used to fashion weapons, parts of chariots, and ritual vessels, played an important role in the material culture of the time.
The year 1177 BCE roughly demarks the disintegration of humanity's first global civilization: the Late Bronze Age.
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In Central and Western Europe, the Iron Age is taken to last from c. 800 BC to c. 1 BC, in Northern Europe from c. 500 BC to 800 AD. In China, there is no recognizable prehistoric period characterized by ironworking, as Bronze Age China transitions almost directly into the Qin dynasty of imperial China; "Iron Age" in the context of China is sometimes used for the transitonal period of c. 500 BC to 100 BC during which ferrous metallurgy was present even if not dominant.
Mar. 10, 2016 - An exceptional collection of bronze weapons dating from the Iron Age II (900-600 BC) has been uncovered near Adam, in the Sultanate of Oman.
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Historical periods Main article: History by period Mesopotamia (3500 BC - 559 BC) Historical Periods of the Americas Further information: History of the Americas Further information: History of the United States Classic and Postclassic eras.
Archeologists trusted that first urban communities began around 3500 BC in Mesopotamia and, not long after, in Egypt.
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Indus Valley Civilization, spread in the north western side of the nation during the period of c. 3300 BC to 1300 BC being India's first civilization, is marked as the main beginning of the ancient history of India.
Rather than an unnatural creation as propounded by many, Pakistan much more than the Gangetic plains, is an appropriate and modern embodiment of thousands of years old Indus Valley Civilization.
The people of the Indus Valley, also known as Harappan (Harappa was the first city in the region found by archaeologists), achieved many notable advances in technology, including great accuracy in their systems and tools for measuring length and mass.
Indians are Gangetic peoples, and they should claim their non existent Ganges Valley Civilization rather than claiming IVC due to their inferiority complex.
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KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS The Old Kingdom (3000 BC) was the first period of wide spread peace in Egypt and considered the first peak of Egyptian civilization.
The term itself was coined by eighteenth-century historians and the distinction between the Old Kingdom and the Early Dynastic Period is not one which would have been recognized by Ancient Egyptians.
The Old Kingdom is most commonly regarded as spanning the period of time when Egypt was ruled by the Third Dynasty through to the Sixth Dynasty (2686-2181 BCE).
English translations of these and other Middle Kingdom tales may be found in such collections as Miriam Lichtheim, Ancient Egyptian Literature, vol. 1: The Old and Middle Kingdoms (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1973/2006), pp. 211-235; and William Kelly Simpson, The Literature of Ancient Egypt (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003), pp. 11-66.
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Khopesh A prestigious Egyptian slashing weapon, used from 2000 BC - 1300 BC. Egyptian Dark Stone Carved Concubine, Middle Kingdom, Ca. 2133 to 1797 BC. A figure of a naked female, her hands held to her sides, wearing a Hathor wig with four loose locks at the back. 3¾in. (9.5cm.) high + custom mount.
Old Egy ptian (2600 BC 2000 BC) The languag e of t he Old Kingdom and First Intermediate Period.
Her dissertation on Egyptian fortresses and garrisons up to the Middle Kingdom was awarded with the third prize of the renowned Werner von Hahlweg Prize in 2000.
Many of the devices, artifacts, and practices of the modern day originated in Egypt's more stable periods of the Old, Middle, and New Kingdoms when there was a strong central government which provided the stability necessary for the creation of art and culture.
These were the Hyksos ('foreign kings') whose rise signals the end of the Middle Kingdom and the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period of Egypt.
Dipylon Vase of the late Geometric period, or the beginning of the Archaic period, c. 750 BC. Achaean bronze Ei Type sword from a greave found in Thessaly dated around 1300 BC. Similar type of general purpouse bronze knives from Tyrins dated around 1300 BC. Ei Type sword from unknown area dated around 1300 BC this short bronze sword is long 24.3 cm.
Language and Writing ? 2700 BC, Egyptians used pictograms to represent vocal sounds (vowel & consonant). ? By 2000 BC, used 26 pictograms to represent 24 main vocal sounds - the world’s oldest known alphabet. ? Ancient Egyptian literature, "Wisdom Text’ - sound advice based on traditions and worldly experience.
The New Kingdom was Ancient Egypt's age of empire; Egyptian pharaohs expanded their control into Syro-Palestine, and the Valley of the Kings was initiated.
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The Shang ruled from around 1600 BC to 1046 BC. Some historians consider the Shang to be the first Chinese Dynasty.
Chinese bronze casting and pottery advanced during the Shang dynasty, with bronze typically being used for ritually significant, rather than primarily utilitarian, items.
In 1046 BC, a powerful Chinese leader from the state of Zhou led a rebellion against King Zhou.
The last Shang king was decisively defeated in the Battle of Muye in 1046 BC and committed a suicide.
Reign of the great Emperor Wu Ding of the Shang Dynasty in China.
Conflicting dates are given for the Shang Dynasty, but most historians agree that they likely ruled between 1600 B.C. and 1046 B.C. Art of the Shang Dynasty comes primarily in the form of bronze objects and oracle bones.
Here are 10 interesting facts about the major emperors, important events, cultural practices; as well as the founding, reign and fall of the Shang dynasty of China.
Around 1600 BC, rebel forces led by Tang decisively defeated the army of King Jie at the Battle of Mingtiao.
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Duration: 1500 BC to 500 BC The Vedic Period or the Vedic Age refers to that time period when the Vedic Sanskrit texts were composed in India.
As agriculture took root in the Indus River Valley one of the worlds earliest urban civilizations (c. 3300 BC) began to develop. This civilization would be smashed by war with invading Aryans around 1500 BC, but civilization and food production spread to the rest of the subcontinent.
It was in the great plains consisting of the Punjab (including the western one now in the modern Pakistan) and the Gangetic valley that the Vedic period flourished and contributed greatly to human civilization and culture.
Epic and Paninian Sanskrit : The language of the Mahabharata and Ramayana epics, and the Classical Sanskrit described by Panini is considered post-Vedic, and belongs to the time after 500 B.C.E. Archaeologically, the rapid spread of Northern Black Polished Ware (NBP) over all of northern India corresponds to this period.
Such ideas were emphasised more strongly in the new teachings of Jainism and Buddhism, which both also had their origins in ancient India, in the years around 500 BC.
Ceramic goblet from Navdatoli, Malwa, c. 1300 BCE: As the Indo-Aryans developed an agricultural society during the Later Vedic Period (c. 1000-500), they further developed crafts, such as pottery.
The Devanagari script is written from left to right and is a descendant of the Brahmi script which was well established in India before 500 B.C. The script is phonetic in nature and there is a fairly regular correspondence between the letters and their pronunciation."
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KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS A sundial dating to the 13th century B.C. and considered one of the oldest Egyptian sundials, was discovered in Egypt's Valley of the Kings, the burial place of rulers from Egypt's New Kingdom period (around 1550 B.C. to 1070 B.C.).
An egyptian alabaster jug - new kingdom, dynast y XVIII - XX, 1550 / 1070 B.
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He became the King Zheng of Qin when he was thirteen, then Chinas first emperor when he was 38 after the Qin had conquered all of the other Warring States and unified all of China in 221 BC. Rather than maintain the title of king borne by the previous Shang and Zhou rulers and his self-invented title emperor, as indicated by his use of the word First, would continue to be borne by Chinese rulers for the next two millennia.
The Qing dynasty is now taking control of the Chinese empire from the Ming, opening a new phase in China's history.
Tea was first mentioned in China during the Zhou dynasty (although it may have been drunk much earlier).
Maps of Chinese Dynasties: Shang Dynasty Color map showing land ruled by China's Shang dynasty relative to present-day political boundaries.
The Han - long dynasty reunified China after wars, and fostered the culture known as Chinese.
The Zhou Dynasty is divided into two periods by historians, the early or Western Zhou and the later or Eastern Zhou Dynasty.
The Qin Dynasty begins in 221 BC when Qin Shi Huang succeeds in conquering all of China.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th-9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity ( c. 600 AD).
Hellas and the Near East were ruled by Alexander's successors until Octavius (later known as Augustus Caesar) defeated Mark Antony and Cleopatra (the last of the Greek pharaohs) at the Battle of Actium in 31 BCE. 200-100 BCE. The classical epics of India were composed or written down, the tragic Mahabharata having similarities to the Iliad, the romantic fantasy Ramayana comparable to the Odyssey.
The Indus Valley Civilisation starts around 3300 BC with what is referred to as the Early Harappan Phase (3300 to 2600 BC).
Mycenaean Greece - Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece.
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These texts were composed between ca. 1500 and 800 BC, and were transmitted by oral tradition alone until the advent of the Pallava and Gupta period and by a combination of written and oral tradition since then Pottery found in the Japanese islands has been dated, by uncalibrated radiocarbon dating, to around the 11th millennium BC, in the Japanese Palaeolithic at the beginning of the Jomon period.
An earthenware vessel with sculptural rim, Late Jomon period - century BC) - Alain.
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Tribes Invaders who broke down and sack western Rome to flee the Huns. 476 CE Collapse of the Roman Empire 330 CE Capital from Rome to Constantinople/ Byzantium Praetors 2 ancient Roman magistrates " alt"Ancient Rome & the Rise of Christianity (509 BCE - 476 CE) Mr. Young Kennedy Charter Public School Family was taken as the unit of social life in ancient Rome and was important to the Romans.
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According to this model, the Jomon population, which was present in Japan by at least the end of the Pleistocene, was followed by agriculturalists from the Korean peninsula during the Yayoi period (ca. 400 BC to AD 300).
It has been traditionally dated from 300 BC to 300 AD, but scholars now think that it developed from at least 800 or 900 BC to 250 AD.
Two Jiangsu skulls showed spots where the front teeth had been pulled, a practice common in Japan in the Yayoi and preceding Jomon period.
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The Cenotaph is in a shape evoking primitive shelters of the Kofun Period (300 to 600 AD); its parabolic arch is reminiscent of haniwa, the pottery found in prehistoric Japanese tombs, representing what the deceased might find useful in the afterlife.
The archaeological record and ancient Chinese and Korean sources indicate that the various tribes and chiefdoms of the Japanese Archipelago did not begin to coalesce into more centralized and hierarchical polities until 300 C.E. (well into the Kofun period), when large tombs begin to appear during a time when there were no contacts between Wa (Japan) and China.
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The Migration Period, also called the Barbarian Invasions, was a period of human migration in Europe that occurred from ca.300 to 700 AD. This period marked the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.
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Textile fragment, Coptic period century), probably century Egypt Silk, linen; plain weave, embroidered Gift of George F. During the reporting period, violence targeting Coptic Orthodox Christians increased and the Egyptian government failed to convict those responsible for the violence.
During the reporting period, violence targeting Coptic Orthodox Christians increased and the Egyptian government failed to convict those responsible for the violence.
Ancient Nabatean Warrior Carving Temenos Gate Entrance Petra City Jordan Petra built between 3rd Century BC to 300 AD. Ruins of the ancient city of El Pital that peaked between 300 and 900 AD. History - Jomon Period (before 300 AD, The clothes of this period were made of hemp and loosely fastened.
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The Dark Ages is usually referring to the first half of the Middle Ages from 500 to 1000 AD. The Middle Ages SOL WHI.9 The gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages or Medieval Period.
Although still highly aristocratic, European society had achieved a great deal over the Central Middle Ages.
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Asuka Period (飛鳥時代): A period of Japanese history running from 538 to 710 AD. Characterized by the rise and centralization of the Yamato kingdom under the ancestors of the modern Japanese ancestors, as well as the arrival of Chinese culture and Buddhism.
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The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784 Some of Japan's literary monuments were written during the Nara period, including the Kojiki and Nihon Shoki, the first national histories, compiled in 712 and 720 respectively; the Man'yōshū (Collection of Ten Thousand Leaves), an anthology of poems; and the Kaifūsō (Fond Recollections of Poetry), an anthology written in Chinese by Japanese emperors and princes.
These schools flourished mostly during the Nara Period of Japanese history (709 to 795 CE).
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POSSIBLY USEFUL Early Japan was Korea(Baekje) 's territoy. this was a Baekje warriors.this is not a samurai we know. this was korean army. // Ancient Japanese Clothing, Kofun (Yamato) Period A. - 538 A. Japans contacts with the Chinese mainland became intense during the Tang period, with many exchanges, the first Japanese embassy to China is recorded to have been sent in 630, following with Japan, who adopted numerous Chinese cultural practices.
During this time period from 250 AD to 538 AD, the unification of the Yamato kingdom, known as Japan today, took place Edo Japan (a term describing the country's stable, economically healthy period between 1603 and 1868) saw a surge in urban cultural and artistic life, and art from the era responded with lovely depictions of townspeople and courtesans letting loose at festivals, enjoying the cherry bloom season, and generally indulging in lowercase-h hedonism.
The years from 794 to 1185 are known as the Heian period ( 平安時代, Heian jidai ?
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The period marks the governance of the Edo or Tokugawa Shogunate which was also officially established in 1603 by the first Edo shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu " alt"How was Japan’s imperialist experience unique?
Clothing oriented outline of Japanese history from 538 to 1603.
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Han Dynasty (漢朝, Japanese Kan-chō, Chinese Hàn cháo): A Chinese dynasty which reigned from 206 BC to 220 AD. The first recorded written record of Japan dates from the Han Dynasty, and was written in 54 AD. The years from 1465 to the end of the Muromachi period are also known as the Sengoku period or Warring States period.
His rule began in 1338, beginning the Muromachi period of Japan and he was a descendant of the samurai of the Seiwa Genji line who had settled in the Ashikaga area of Shimotsuke Province, in present-day Tochigi Prefecture.
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Azuchi-Momoyama Period (安土?桃山時代): A period of Japanese history running from 1573 to 1603 AD. During this period, the warlords Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu put an end to over a century of fighting; Ieyasu eventually established himself as shogun.
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Towards the late Northern and Southern dynasties, the Northern Zhou conquered the Northern Qi in 577 and reunified northern China, The century trend of gradual conquest of the southern dynasties of the Han Chinese from the northern dynasties, which were ruled of ethnic minority Xianbei, would become inevitable.
The first dynasty of Northern Dynasties was Northern Wei, ruled by Xianbei.
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POSSIBLY USEFUL In north the Northern Wei Dynasty (386-534 AD) of the Xianbei tribe dominated the northern part of China, south of Yangtze River the Chinese dynasty Liu Song (劉宋) ruled the land.
The Tang dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The Song dynasty (Chinese: 宋朝; pinyin: Sòng cháo; 960-1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
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It was so called, to indicate the period of five continuous but short lived dynasties, with ten prevailing kingdoms, ruling Ancient China from 907 AD to 960 AD. The Tang dynasty (Chinese: 唐朝 ) was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The J"n Dynasty, was a dynasty in Chinese history, lasting between the years 265 and 420 CE. There are two main divisions in the history of the Dynasty, the first being Western Jin and the second Eastern Jin.
A number of professional academies were also established by the government to train specialized talents for the ruling class, such as the History Academy of the Southern and Northern Dynasties （420-589）, the Calligraphy Academy of the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Law Academy of the Song Dynasty （960-1279） and the Painting Academy of the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).
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The period of the five dynasties lasted for only 53 years, from 907 AD to 960 AD. The Five Dynasties comprised a string of dynasties in northern China that succeeded one another from 907 AD to 960 AD. Of the many schools founded at this time and during the subsequent Warring States period and it is a system of moral, social, political, and religious thought that has had tremendous influence on Chinese history, thought, and culture down to the 20th century.
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It was so called, to indicate the period of five continuous but short lived dynasties, with ten prevailing kingdoms, ruling Ancient China from 907 AD to 960 AD. Many gifts with Chinese elements originate with blue and white porcelain, mostly because it has been widely traded to Europe ever since the 17th Centery, first to the nobles and later to the ordinary people.
The Liao dynasty (907-1125) of China and its successor, the Western Liao (1124-1211), were founded by the Khitan, a proto-Mongol people who were originally nomadic pastoralists residing in modern Inner Mongolia, Mongolia, Manchuria, and perhaps as far north as Lake Baikal, in modern-day Russia.
In 1005 Chanyuan Treaty was signed, and peace remained between the Liao dynasty and the Song dynasty for the next 120 years.
Two hundred and sixty feet tall, the octagonal Daming Pagoda once stood at the heart of the Central Capital of the Liao, a dynasty that ruled an empire uniting the nomadic Khitan people of northern China from A.D. 907 to 1125.
In 605, the Khitan raided China, but the Emperor Yangdi of the Sui Dynasty was able to convince the Turks to send 20,000 horsemen to aid China against the Khitan.
China achieved some stability with the arrival of the Song dynasty (960-1279 CE), but the Chinese emperors were still struggling to manage their own population and faced another dangerous neighbour to the north-west in the form of the Xia state.
Under the leadership of Wanyan Aguda, the founder of the Jin dynasty, the Jurchens captured in rapid succession, Shangjing, Zhongjing and Dongjing, the Liao's Upper, Central and Eastern Capitals.
From 1020 CE Goryeo sent tribute to the Liao instead of Song China and adopted the Khitan calendar.
All the above had pushed the development of Liao's medicine in Northern China to its mature stage.
Although the Song dynasty had lost control of the traditional "birthplace of Chinese civilization" along the Yellow River, the Song economy was still strong, as the Southern Song Empire contained a large population and productive agricultural land.
After usurping the throne of the Later Zhou dynasty, Emperor Taizu of Song (r. 960-976) spent sixteen years conquering the rest of China, reuniting much of the territory that had once belonged to the Han and Tang empires and ending the upheaval of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
The early Northern Song dynasty was noted for their magnificent paintings of landscapes.
Although the institution of the civil service examinations had existed since the Sui dynasty, it became much more prominent in the Song period.
The Song (aka Sung) dynasty ruled China from 960 to 1279 CE with the reign split into two periods: the Northern Song (960-1125 CE) and Southern Song (1125-1279 CE).
One of the other major developments in the Song Dynasty was the rapid expansion of the canal and of the waterway system, which was particularly true in the southeast and southern parts of China.
The philosophical efforts by many thinkers during the Northern Song dynasty in the 11th century had continued and culminated during the Southern Song dynasty in the emergence of Neo-Confucianism (in China known as: Daoxue - the Learning of the Way, daoway, xuestudy or learning), which soon after became the dominant ideology of the Chinese empire.
By the mid-Tang Dynasty, the majority of the hereditary aristocracy were threatened their political positions, and by late Tang/early Song, the scholar/gentry had firmly established his social/political/intellectual control of China.
When this alliance collapses, the Mongols begin to attack Song China, but the Chinese are able to withstand many battles with their military power and advanced weaponry.
The Jurchens set up a new dynasty, the Jin, in northern China while the Song remnant fled to the south, creating the Southern Song.
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Prior to the Western Jin dynasty and the reunification of China by the Western Jin emperors, there was 25 years of fighting among the Chinese people.
The Jurchen Jin dynasty (meaning "Golden") ruled parts of China, Mongolia, and northern Korea from 1115 to 1234 CE. The Jurchen originated from Manchuria, but in conquering the neighbouring Liao empire of the Khitan and parts of Song China, they came to rule the Great Plain of Asia from 1127 CE until their fall at the hands of the Mongols.
The Jurchen Jin state invades Song China necessitating the latter to move south and form the Southern Song dynasty.
The Khitan people formed the Liao dynasty and ruled parts of Mongolia, Manchuria, and northern China from 907 to 1125.
The Eastern Jin dynasty was eventually overthrown by the Liu Song.
In the year 265 AD, a powerful Wei general named Ssu Ma Yen usurped the Wei throne in Luoyang and with his troops established the Western Jin (or Chin) Dynasty in North China.
To this end, they continued to use their own alphabet and speech and banned Chinese clothing and customs from their armies--although they had chosen the Chinese name of Jin for their dynasty.
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After its conquest war, the Mongolia () Empire founded by Genghis Khan couldn't conquer China (Nansong, Empire) until it collapsed other dynasties, including the Western Xia Dynasty (), because Nansong Empire lying in the Chinese Continent resisted the Mongolia fiercely.
After Jingzongs death, Yizong became the emperor at the age of two and his mother became the regent and during Yizongs reign, the Liao dynasty launched an invasion of Western Xia, causing Western Xia to submit to the Liao dynasty as a vassal state.
China in various works depicting the life of Genghis Khan is of this period, mostly of Western Xia and Jin empires.
As Yu neared death he passed the throne to his son, Qi, instead of passing it to the most capable candidate, the Xia dynasty began a period of family or clan control.
The Western Xia Mausoleum is the Western Xia Dynasty's imperial graveyard located in the western suburbs of Yinchuan, the provincial capital of Ningxia, around 35 kilometers from the city center near Helan Mountain.
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Despite the traditional historiography as well as the official views (including the government of the Ming dynasty which overthrew the Yuan dynasty), there also exist Chinese people who did not consider the Yuan dynasty as a legitimate dynasty of China, but rather as a period of foreign domination.
Revolts in the mid-14th century led to the final overthrow of the Yuan in 1368, making it the shortest-lived major dynasty of China.
A total of ten Mongol khans ruled China in the Yuan period, and they created a unique culture that was an amalgam of Mongolian and Chinese customs and statecraft.
Founding of Yuan Dynasty ? Kublai Khan (1260-1294) ? Known as the Great Khan. ? True founder and emperor of the Yuan Dynasty. ? First Mongol (non-Chinese) emperor of China. ? Genghis Khan's grandson. ? Defeated his younger brother Ariq B?ke in a succession war. ? Invasions of Japan, in 1274 and 1281, were failures. ? Invasion of Java in 1293 was also a failure. ? Transferred the Mongol capital from Karakorum to Peking.
Toghun fled north to Shangdu from Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing) in 1368 after the approach of the forces of the M'ng dynasty (1368-1644), founded by Zhu Yuanzhang in the south, thereby ending the Yuan.
The Yuan dynasty arose as a result of the Mongol invasion from the north of China; Kublai Khan (1215- 1294), the grandson of Genghis Khan, was the founder of the dynasty.
The exhibition is the second in a series of two; the first, Style in Chinese Landscape Painting: The Song Dynasty, was on view through October 26, 2014.
Even before the extinction of the Song dynasty, Kublai Khan had established the first alien dynasty to rule all China--the Yuan (1279-1368).
He conquered China, founding and becoming the first emperor of the country's Yuan Dynasty.
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In 1912, after the overthrow of the Qing dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution, some advocated that a Han Chinese be installed as Emperor, either the descendant of Confucius, who was the Duke Yansheng, or the Ming dynasty Imperial family descendant, the Marquis of Extended Grace.
Wanli Emperor : The 13th emperor of the Ming dynasty of China; his reign of forty-eight years (1572-1620) was the longest of the Ming dynasty, and it witnessed the steady decline of the dynasty.
It was the fourth longest Chinese dynasty, lasting for 276 years.
The Song Dynasty was a very prosperous time in Chinese history.
Ming emperors exerted more direct control over the Chinese government, and its organization became more stratified, with all major decisions funneling down from above.
Ming (m?ng), dynasty of China that ruled from 1368 to 1644.
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The evolution of Maya religion parallels that of Mexican religions from the Classic to the Postclassic era, with the sun worship and human sacrifice complex gaining importance as it did in Mexico proper.
Mesoamerican chronology divides the history of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica into several periods: the Paleo-Indian (first human habitation3500 BCE), the Archaic (35002000), the Preclassic (2000 BCE200 CE), the Classic (200 CE1000CE), and the Postclassic (1000 CE1697 CE).
Chandragupta's son, Samudragupta, assumed the throne in 335 CE, and conquered several neighboring kingdoms; eventually, the Gupta Empire extended across the entire Indian subcontinent.
Although preceded by two Guptan rulers, Chandragupta I (reign 320-335 CE) is credited with establishing the Gupta Empire in the Ganges River valley in about 320 CE, when he assumed the name of the founder of the Mauryan Empire.
By 550 CE, the original Gupta line had no successor and the empire disintegrated into smaller kingdoms with independent rulers.
The Gupta Age was a dynamic period in ancient Indian history, which lasted for two centuries, and left a powerful impact on India's cultural heritage to earn the tag of 'Golden Age' conferred upon it by pre-independence Indian historians.
After assuming power, Skandagupta quickly crushes the Huna invasion, but this drains the Gupta resources and contributes to the empire's decline.
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KEY TOPICS The three noteworthy Indian administrations - the northwest Indian Gurjara-Pratihara Dynasty, the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty and the east Indian Pala Empire - overwhelmed India from the eighth to tenth hundreds of years.
After gaining control of Varendra, Ramapala tried to revive the Pala empire with limited success, he ruled from a new capital at Ramavati, which remained the Pala capital until the dynasty's end.
The Pāla Empire was one of the major middle kingdoms of India existed from 750-1174 CE. It was ruled by a Buddhist dynasty from Bengal in the eastern region of the Indian subcontinent, all the rulers bearing names ending with the suffix Pala (Modern Bengali: ??? pāl), which means protector.
The empire at its peak covered much of the region of the Indian subcontinent.
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KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS India was ruled by 3 major Indian Dynasties the Pratihara, Pala and Rashtrakuta Dynasties in the 9th century.
The origin of the Rashtrakuta dynasty has been a controversial topic of Indian history.
A history of South India from prehistoric times to the fall of Vijayanagar, new Delhi, Indian Branch, Oxford University Press.
The Hoysala Empire (Kannada: ?????? ?????????) (pronunciation: ( help · info ) in Kannada) stood as a prominent South Indian empire that ruled most of the modern day state of Karnataka between the tenth and the fourteenth centuries.
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KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Kakatiya Empire, Kakatiya Empire in India, Legendary Kings of KakatiyaFind, save ideas about Kakatiya dynasty on Pinterest.
For over a century, the two empires of Southern India, the Western Chalukyas and the Chola dynasty of Tanjore fought many wars to control the fertile region of Vengi.
The demise of Kakatiya dynasty resulted in confusion and anarchy under alien rulers for sometime.Musunuri Nayaks, who served as army chiefs for the Kakatiya kingdom, united the various Telugu clans and recovered Warangal from the Delhi Sultanate and ruled for half a century.Three new fledgling kingdoms arose out of the ruins of the Kakatiya empire: the Reddy kingdom, Padma Nayaka Velama kingdom and the Great Vijayanagara empire.
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The Islamic Golden Age coincided with the Middle Ages in the Muslim world, starting with the rise of Islam and establishment of the first Islamic state in 622.
From about 700 c.e. to 1300 c.e. the Islamic domains and caliphates sponsored work in science, medicine, mathematics, astronomy and engineering.
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By the start of the High Middle Ages, and as a result by the time period of 1000 C.E., Feudalism had brought stability to much of Europe.
After the fall of the Roman Empire, the Middle Ages was a time of little scientific and artistic advancement until the renaissance of the 12th century, when increased contact with the Islamic world and Byzantium revived the arts.
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Though gunpowder along with other weapons had been started by Chinese, it was the Europeans who developed and perfected its military potential, precipitating European expansion and eventual imperialism in the Modern Era.
In the 14th century, as Srivijaya Empire faded, the island was taken by first the Majapahit Empire from Indonesia, and then the Ayutthaya Kingdom from Thailand.
Bajang Ratu temple Located in east Java and established in 14th century.
Austronesian people, who form the majority of the modern population, were originally from Taiwan and arrived in Indonesia around 2000 BCE. From the seventh century CE, the powerful Srivijaya naval kingdom flourished bringing Hindu and Buddhist influences with it.
To give you a teaser as to why, a complete history of Indonesia would require talking about the Sudanese Indianised Tarumanagara (4th 7th Century) in Java, Kallinga Kindgom (6th 7th Century) and its successeors the Javanese Hindu-Budddhist Medang Kingdom (8th-10th Century).
The political history of Indonesian archipelago during the 7th to 11th centuries was dominated by Srivijaya based in Sumatra, also Sailendra that dominated central Java and constructed Borobudur, the largest Buddhist monument in the world.
Knowledge of the kingdom among Sundanese people has been kept alive through Sundanese Pantun oral tradition, the chant of poetic verses about the Golden Age of Sunda Pajajaran, and the legend of Sri Baduga Maharaja (Prabu Siliwangi or King Siliwangi), the most popular king of Sunda.
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Srivijaya (3rd to 14th centuries) Tarumanagara (358-723) Sailendra (8th 9th centuries) Kingdom of Sunda (669-1579) Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045) Pagaruyung Kingdom Kediri (1045-1221.
According to the Wangsakerta manuscript, Wretikandayun, the lord of another former vassal kingdom of Tarumanagara, Galuh Kingdom, used the establishment of the Sunda Kingdom as an excuse to split eastern Taruma from Tarusbawa's Sunda.
Early sovereignties that thrived include Srivijaya Empire (3rd-14th centuries), Tarumanagara (358-732), Sailendra (800-900), Sunda Kingdom (669-1579), the Kingdom of Mataram (752-1045), Kediri (1045-1221), Singhasari (1222), and Majapahit (1293-1500).
As in much of early Javanese history, there is uncertainty about the precise role of Mataram's founder, Senapati (r. 1584-1601), and its greatest ruler, Sultan Agung (r. 1613-1646) in expanding the state, but there is no doubt that Mataram came to exercise closer control over a larger part of Java than any preceding kingdom.
The kingdom of Mataram was divided in 1755 under an agreement signed in Giyanti between the Dutch under the Governor General Nicolaas Hartingh and rebellious prince Mangkubumi, the treaty divided nominal control over central Java between Yogyakarta Sultanate, under Mangkubumi, and Surakarta, under Pakubuwana.
Mataram was an Indianized kingdom based in Central Java between the 8th and 10th centuries CE. The centre of the kingdom was moved from Central Java to East Java by Mpu Sindok.
Kutai - Kutai, is a historic region in East Kalimantan in Indonesia on Borneo and also name of the native people on the region with a language of the correlating name and their history.
In this division Colin Brown writes in the book, A Short History of Indonesia, "The western portion of Mataram became Kadiri, the eastern part Janggala."
It was the earliest Hindu-Buddhist kingdom in Central Java, and together with Kutai and Tarumanagara are the oldest kingdoms in Indonesian history.
Most of Ken Arok's life story and also the early history of Singhasari was taken from the Pararaton account, which also incorporates some mythical aspects.
The Majapahit empire was the last of the major Hindu empires of the Malay archipelago and is considered one of the greatest states in Indonesian history.
The Trowulan archaeological area has become the center for the study of Majapahit history.
When compiling the modern history of Southeast Asia, secular view induced scholars to portrays Cambodia as a nation to form itself after the Chenla uprising in a constrained environment of today (Notes: The Khmer Nationality).
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Khmer architecture - The period of Angkor is the period in the history of the Khmer Empire from approximately the latter half of the 8th century AD to the first half of the 15th century CE. In any study of Angkorian architecture, the emphasis is necessarily on religious architecture, during the period of Angkor, only temples and other religious buildings were constructed of stone.
Second Chinese domination of Vietnam - The second Chinese domination marks a period when Vietnam fell into Chinese control for a second time, between the end of the Tr?ng Sisters and the start of the Anterior L? Dynasty.
Coffee lovers love Tri?u Vi?t V??ng Street for its many choices of café that nested under shadows of trees.
Second Chinese domination of Vietnam (43-544) ended by the revolt of L? Nam ?? who led a rebellion taking advantage of internal disorder in China and the weakness of the waning Liang dynasty.
Vietnam and Chinese Colonization During Chinese colonial times, Vietnamese society was largely confined to what is today the northern third of Vietnam
Although 1,000 years of Chinese rule left many traces, the collective memory of the period reinforced Vietnam's cultural and later political independence.
They are forever etched in the hearts of the Vietnamese for having led a rebellion against the first Chinese domination of the country.
One-third of Vietnam’s population lives along the coast, Chien tells me, and the marine sector accounts for 50 percent of the country’s GDP. Vietnam claims a line 200 nautical miles straight out over its continental shelf into the South China Sea (which Vietnamese call the "East Sea").
Although Au Lac people were lured into the annexation of the northern country, the domination was interrupted by uprisings of Vietnamese people during over 1000 years.
The peripheralization of Vietnam was concentrated in the French colony of Cochin China, in part because it was a colony directly administered by the French rather than a protectorate administered indirectly through a Vietnamese government under French direction.
Plenty of women have been instrumental in resisting foreign domination throughout Vietnamese history.
China occupied Vietnam for 1,000 years and Vietnamese nationalism has its origins in resisting this domination.
The Vietnamese speak of four periods of Chinese domination; the first from about the year 100 BC.
The Han Dynasty conquered Nam Viet in 111 BCE, ushering in the "First Chinese Domination," which lasted until 39 CE.
Most notably, the Vietnamese noblewomen called the Trung Sisters managed to kick China out of Vietnam in 40 CE. However, the Han military returned three years later and reconquered the kingdom.
This is an important interaction to remember when you read about present-day Chinese actions in the South China Sea, and so forth.
Khúc Th?a D? launched a rebellion against the Chinese Tang dynasty in In 906 an autonomous region in Vietnam was established under the Khúc family.
The famous bearers the Khúc family were a group of leaders who challenged Tang rule over Vietnam.
In 1075, when word reached Vietnam of an imminent invasion by the Chinese Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD), Kiet, followed by 50,000 Vietnamese Marines, launched a surprise assault, on Qinzhou.
In 937, Liu Yan, the Southern Han ruler, took the chance to step in Vietnam again after the death of the Annam Lord Protector D??ng ?"nh Ngh?.
According to stories of the period, the First Hng dynasty only had one ruler, Kinh D??ng V??ng himself, and witnessed the first two capitals in Vietnamese history, at Ngàn H?ng and Ngh?a L?nh.
The Chinese reconquered the Vietnam land and ruled the same they did during their first rule, almost erasing Vietnamese culture.
This led to a fierce battle in the area where the Vietnam natives fought Ki?u C?ng Ti?n who was backed by the Chinese.
Kieu Chinh : Ki?u Chinh (born Nguy?n Th? Chinh; 1939 in Vietnam) is a Vietnamese American actress best known for her role in The Joy Luck Club.
There is still a debate about the legitimacy of Tri?u dynasty (Zhao dynasty): some Vietnamese historians confirm Tri?u dynasty is one of the Vietnamese dynasties but others claim that Tri?u dynasty is a Chinese dynasty.
In the 17th century Vietnamese historians like Ng? Th" S? and Jesuits like Martinio Martini studied texts on the H?ng Bàng Dynasty like ??i Vi?t s? k? toàn th? and used mathematics to deduce that the information on them were nonsense given the impossible reign years of the monarchs.
The third Chinese domination refers to the time in Vietnam from the end of the Early L? dynasty in 602 to the rise of the Khúc family by Khúc Th?a D? in 905 or until 938, following the expulsion of the Southern Han invaders by Ng? Quy?n.
Being the capital of the first fundamental Government of Vietnam, Hoa Lu witnessed many important historical events: the union of Vietnam after "12 Lords Rebellion", the war with the Song dynasty, the defense against the ancient Cambodian, and the formation of Hanoi nowadays.
The Nguyen Empoeror Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities such as Cambodians, claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term Han people 漢人 to refer to the Vietnamese.
A famous bearer is ?? C?nh Th?c, a warlord during the 12 Lords Rebellion.
The Le Dynasty ended in 1788 after ruling Vietnam for 360 years, making it the longest in Vietnamese history.
Turley, Women in the Communist Revolution in Vietnam," Asian Survey, Vol. 12, No. 9 (Sep., 1972): 793.
With the Ng? Dynasty gone, Vietnam was hence divided into 12 regions each administered by a warlord, converging into three main forces in the conflict: the descendants of the Ng? Dynasty including Ng? C?nh Th?c, Ng? X??ng X', and Ng? Nh?t Khánh; L? X? B"nh in C? Loa; and an alliance between Tr?n L?m, ?inh B? L?nh, and Ph?m Phòng ?t.
Dinh Bo Linh, reign title Dinh Tien Hoang, (born, Hoa Lu, northern Vietnam--died 979, northern Vietnam), emperor and founder of the second Vietnamese dynasty, who, after a decade of anarchy, reunified his country, winning official recognition of Vietnam as a state independent from China.
Holy Father festival in Nam Dinh is held in the death anniversary of Saint Tran Hung Dao - a talented General, a National Hero who contributed significantly to the Tran Dynasty career, and worshiped widely in temples and the spiritual life of Vietnamese people in general and Nam Dinh people in particular.
In 1802, the Nguy?n emperor Gia Long defeated a thirty-year uprising that had overthrown both Nguy?n rule in modern-day southern Vietnam as well as the rule of the Tr?nh clan in modern day-northern Vietnam: the two dynasties, nominally under the authority of the Lê dynasty, had ruled these regions as separate (and vastly different) Vietnamese empires for two hundred years.
Academically it is always true that the Vietnamese language has evolved alongside the develoment of Vietnam's national history.
The period of rule under the L? Dynasty (1009-1225) is commonly considered a golden age in Vietnamese art, and its ceramics became famous across Southeast Asia and the Far East.
When the Lê emperor Lê Long ??nh died in his twenties, a court general named L? C?ng U?n took the chance to take over the throne and founded the L? dynasty.
In late 9th century, taking advantage of the ruin of Tang Dynasty in China, a Vietnamese called Khuc Thua Du overthrew the Chinese domination of Vietnam by rising up against China and regaining independent period of Vietnam.
Whether arguing from the historical, bureaucratic model of a strong Chinese dynasty or the theoretical, economic model of the Asiatic Mode of Production, scholars in and out of Vietnam have favoured the idea that, beginning with the L?, dynastic power in Vietnam was expressed as a centralized state that wielded effective administrative control over the different territories of the realm.
The eldest son became the first in a line of earliest Vietnamese kings, collectively known as the Hng kings (Hng V??ng or the H?ng Bàng Dynasty).
The Later Tr?n Dynasty (Vietnamese: Nhà H?u Tr?n) period of 1407 till 1413 in the history of Vietnam is characterized by two revolts, centered around Tr?n Ng?i (Gi?n ??nh ??) and Tr?n Qu? Khoáng (Trng Quang ??).
After the first Tran Dynasty's defeat of the Mongols, the world's most mighty army in the XIIIth century led by Koubilai-a grandson to Gengis Khan, in 1258, a newly coronated King of Tr?n Dynasty, Tr?n Thánh T?ng ordered homeless and poor Viet people to go reclaining waste and virgin soil in various delta areas in the North, expanding the cropland for farmers.
The Vietnamese emperor repeatedly ignored demands to attend the Yuan court, nevertheless, according to the history of the Yuan dynasty, the Tr?n court sent tribute every three years and received a darughachi.
When H? Dynasty (1400-1407) usurped the throne from the Tr?n, H? Qu? Ly also implemented some economic changes, including unifying the weight and volume measure system, improving river-transporting means, establishing administrative system for collecting taxes and fees from merchants, building foodstuff reserve to intervene when market rice prices fluctuating too much, etc. Like previous kings of Tr?n, he perhaps pursued an improved government budget and arms force.
In 1407, under the pretext of helping to restore the Tr?n Dynasty, Chinese Ming troops invaded ??i Ngu and captured H? Qu? Ly and H? Hán Th??ng.
The economic development policies adopted by early Tr?n's kings inherited the idea formulated by one of the most well-known senior general of Vietnam's history-Tr?n Th? ??-who had decided to bolster the economic development of the capital city by more economic reform so that savings and wealth could help contribute to a bolstered military force.
H? Qúy Ly, founder of the H? Dynasty, moved the capital from Th?ng Long (present day Hanoi) and renamed Vietnam (then known as ??i Vi?t) to ??i Ngu, which means Land of Eternal Peace.
The Lê dynasty's rule saw Vietnam's territories grow from a small state in northern Vietnam at the time of Lê Li's coronation into almost its current size by the time the Tây Sn brothers took over.
The other three periods of Chinese domination, collectively known as the B?c thu?c periods in Vietnam, were longer lasting, constituting much of Vietnam's history from 111 BC to 939 AD. Despite lasting for a few years, the fourth Chinese domination viewed as the harshest dominating period to Vietnamese people.
This battle concluded the fourth invasion as well as ended 1000 - year Chinese domination in Vietnam.
Even during periods of independence from China, the government followed the Chinese Confucian model; the Vietnamese language was written with Chinese characters; art was heavily influenced by China.
Vietnam was a vassal of China in ancient times although the Vietnamese people occasionally rebelled against continued domination by China.
There were many small-scale revolts against the cruel domination characterized by dictatorship, forcing labor, and insatiable tributes of China from the 3rd century to 6th century.
Stopping in Malacca, the Chinese recognized Paramesawara as the legitimate ruler of Malacca and gave him a tablet officially declaring that the city was a vassal state of China.
Manchuria under Ming rule refers to the domination of the Ming dynasty over Manchuria, including todays Northeast China and Outer Manchuria.
A conciliatory mood developed on both sides of the Sino- Vietnamese border in 1989, partly because Vietnam's proposal to withdraw completely from Cambodia responded to a basic Chinese condition for improved relations.
They were the long-established objectives of Ho Chi Minh's nationalist and anticolonialist predecessors, who had resisted Chinese rule for 1,000 years and French domination for a century.
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Nazca Nazca, culture located on the southern coast of present-day Peru during the Early Intermediate Period (c. 200 bc-ad 600), so called from the Nazca Valley but including also.
Shady R, Ruiz A. Evidence for interregional relationships during the Middle Horizon on the North central coast of Peru.
The following eras of ancient Peru (1800 BC-AD 1534) have been defined by archaeologists using an alternation of so-called "periods" and "horizons" which end with the arrival of the Europeans.
Most of the cultures of the Late Horizon and some of the cultures of the Late Intermediate joined the Inca Empire by 1493, but the period ends in 1532 because that marks the fall of the Inca empire after the Spanish conquest.
A model of late pre-Inka political geography of the region surrounding Cajamarca, in the north highlands of Peru, is presented.
Survey data delineates settlement distribution patterns from the Archaic through Colonial periods, demonstrating an increase in sites and a movement into high altitude zones during the Late Intermediate Period.
Most of the cultures of the Late Horizon and some of the cultures of the Late Intermediate joined the Inca Empire by 1493, but the period ends in 1532 because that marks the fall of the Inca empire after the Spanish conquest.
The following eras of ancient Peru (1800 BC-AD 1534) have been defined by archaeologists using an alternation of so-called "periods" and "horizons" which end with the arrival of the Europeans.
After the end of the late Middle Ages period, the Renaissance spread unevenly over continental Europe from the southern European region.
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The Renaissance is usually considered to have begun in the 14th century in Italy and the 16th century in northern Europe.
‘Rebirth’) Period of European history lasting roughly from the mid-l5th century to the end of the 16th century.
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The Age of Discovery, also known as the Age of Exploration and the Great Navigations, was a period in European history from the early 15th century to the early 17th century.
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Ranging from 1558 to 1603, this was during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I. The Elizabethan Era, also known as the Elizabethan Age or Elizabethan Period, is said to be the golden age of English history, with a quite diversified public life, a rise in the fine arts, and numerous advancements in many technological and scientific fields.
Queen Victoria was queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1837 to 1901--the second longest reign of any other British monarch in history.
Elizabethan already means the period between 1558 and 1603 corresponding to the reign of Elizabeth I. Therefore the period 1952 to the date of her death would not be called Elizabethan as that would just be confusing.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the malayalam discipline essay in United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
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Prior to the Protestant Reformation, pretty much everyone in Europe was a Roman protestant reformation Catholic The Protestant Reformation is a term used to describe a series of events that happened in the 16th century in the Christian Church.
All of Scandinavia ultimately adopted Lutheranism over the course of the 16th century, as the monarchs of Denmark (who also ruled Norway and Iceland ) and Sweden (who also ruled Finland ) converted to that faith.
By the close of the 16th century the Roman Catholic church had regained the faith of the people in half of the lands it had lost to Protestantism.
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The Jacobean era refers to the period in English and Scottish history that coincides with the reign of King James I (1603-1625) of England, who was also James VI of Scotland.
George III Ruled 1760-1820 Regency 1811-1820 The English Regency, or simply the Regency, is a name given to the period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of the United Kingdom.
This Jacobean costume history information consists of Pages 325- 340 of the chapter on the early 17th century dress in the 22 YEAR REIGN era of James the First 1603-1625 and taken from English Costume by Dion Clayton Calthrop.
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Enlightenment : A philosophical movement in 17th and 18th century Europe; the Age of Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, emphasized rationalism.
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The period between 1603 to 1868 in the history of Japan when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional Daimyo.
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The Mughals were Muslims who created an empire in India that held power for roughly 200 years between the early 16th and early 18th centuries, although technically, the Mughal empire didn't come to an end until after the Indian rebellion against the British in 1857.
The final crunch came after the war of 1857 when the Mughal rule officially came to an end and India came under the direct rule of the British crown.
It is Aurangzeb who triumphed, and though the Mughal Empire saw yet further expansion in the early years of his long reign (1658-1707), by the later part of the seventeenth century the empire was beginning to disintegrate.
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By capturing many areas of Christian Europe, as well as Muslim areas of Iran, Arab, and North Africa, The Ottoman Turks not only protected Islamic states from better equipped European armies, but also allowed the spread of Islam far and wide in the territories of the empire.
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The Qing dynasty ( Chinese : 清朝 ; pinyin : Qīng cháo ) was a dynasty of rulers of China from 1644 to 1912.
The Qing ruled from 1644 until the abdication of their last emperor, the infant Puyi, in February 1912.
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In the 16th century the Spanish overseas territories were divided in two viceroyalties: New Spain (1535) for North America, Antilles, the Philippines and Venezuela, and Peru (1542) for South America, which was divided in the 18th century.
As Spain’s power weakened in the seventeenth century, England, The Netherlands, and the French took advantage overseas by seizing islands in the Caribbean, which became bases for a burgeoning contraband trade in Spanish America.
The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre.
The codices, largely written in the 16th century by indigenous scribes under Spanish direction, provide information in great detail on culinary practices of pre-Hispanic peoples.
Closer to home and earlier, the U.S. declared hegemony over the Western Hemisphere in the 1820s with the Monroe Doctrine, acquiescing in existing Spanish and Portuguese territories for the time being, but vowing to preclude any further colonization by any foreign power.
The symbolic year chosen to represent this world revolution is 1789, the year of the French Revolution, but this world revolution included the American Independence, the Haitian Revolution and the revolt of the Spanish colonies of Latin America led by Simon Bolivar that extended into the 1820s.
KEY TOPICS Emigration from Europe began with Spanish and Portuguese settlers in the 16th century, and French and English settlers in the 17th century.
The Spanish Empire became the foremost global power in 16th and 17th centuries and was the first to be called the empire on which the sun never sets.
Spanish hegemony remained unchallenged until 1670, with the English establishment of Charles Towne, South Carolina and brought down a slave raid to St. Catherines, the northernmost outpost of the Spanish Empire on the east coast of North America.
The invasion and conquest of the Spanish Netherlands was necessary because these lands for too long had served as the basis from which Spain launched its attacks on France and the Republic and plotted the submission of Europe.
The Canary Islands became part of Spanish territory (1495), the hegemony of Spain in the Mediterranean, to the detriment of France, was affirmed with the conquest of the Kingdom of Naples, and Navarre was incorporated into the Kingdom.
On May 1, 1898, the Spanish navy was decisively defeated in the Battle of Manila Bay by the Asiatic Squadron of the U.S. Navy led by Commodore George Dewey aboard the USS Olympia Thereafter Spain lost the ability to defend Manila and therefore the Philippines.
The war was less of a success than that against Venice, and in 1516 France agreed to a truce that left Milan under French control and recognized Spanish hegemony in northern Navarre.
In the Treaty of Paris (1898) ending the Spanish-American War, the Spanish agreed to sell the Philippines to the United States for $ 20 million which was subsequently narrowly ratified by the U.S. Senate.
Petrine Era Timeline Timeline Description: The reign of Peter the Great (1682 - 1725) had such a great impact on Russia's history that it became known as the Petrine era.
In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, life in Great Britain rapidly changed as the Industrial Revolution got under way.
History at its most interesting is complex, a fascinating whirl of events, personalities, and forces, and few periods of history offer us such captivating complexity as Europe's 19th "century"--the often-broadly defined period from the French Revolution to World War I that formed the foundation of the modern world.
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The Napoleonic era begins roughly with Napoleon Bonaparte's coup d'état, overthrowing the Directory, establishing the French Consulate, and ends during the Hundred Days and his defeat at the Battle of Waterloo (9 November 1799- 28 June 1815).
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This sub-period of the Georgian Era is known as the Regency era. 1815 Napoleon I of France is defeated by the Seventh Coalition under The Duke of Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo, in what is now Wallonia, Belgium. 1819 The Peterloo Massacre occurs. 1820 George III dies on 29 January, and his son George, Prince Regent ascends to the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland as George IV. 1830 George IV dies on 26 June.
The Georgian era came to a close in 1830, although the House of Hanover continued through George IV’s brother William IV (Charlotte having died) and the glorious reign of Queen Victoria.
The sub-period that is the Regency era is defined by the regency of George IV as Prince of Wales during the illness of his father George III. The definition of the Georgian era is often extended to include the relatively short reign of William IV, which ended with his death in 1837.
Georgian architecture refers to architectural styles in most English-speaking countries that were popular during the reigns of the four members of the house of Hanover: George I, George II, George III the English king during the American Revolution, and George IV. This period lasted from 1714 until 1830.
The Prince of Wales is the heir apparent of the monarch of the United Kingdom, no formal public role or responsibility has been legislated by Parliament or otherwise delegated to him by law or custom, either as heir apparent or as Prince of Wales.
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In the strictest sense, the Victorian era covers the duration of Victoria's reign as Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, from her accession on 20 June 1837--after the death of her uncle, William IV --until her death on 22 January 1901, after which she was succeeded by her eldest son, Edward VII.
On 20 June 1837, Victoria became Queen of the United Kingdom on the death of her uncle, William IV.
This era refers to the time period of Queen Victoria, who ruled England from 1837 - 1901.
The age of prosperity, nobility and social elitism marks the Victorian age from 1837 to 1901 ruled by Queen Victoria.
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The Romantic Era is from 1810 - 1920, it is then separated into two different periods called 'Early Romantic Period' (1810 - 1850) and 'Late Romantic Period' (1851 - 1920).
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In the late 19th Century, otherwise known as the Gilded Age, the United States experienced tremendous economic growth -- an important aspect of which was innovation.
A series of conflicts between the United States and various subgroups of the Sioux people that occurred in the latter half of the 19th century.
If we cannot locate a central collective concept which, for better or worse, organizes our sense of being American, then this second Gilded Age has become a unique period in American history.
Cheated expectations fed the violent strikes of the era, including the largest strike anywhere in the world in the 19th century, the Great Railroad Strike of 1877, which I chronicle in the book.
The Bank of the United States tended to stabilize currency, but it was a hot political issue for much of the early 19th century.
"The divisions are now deeper, even than they were in the 19th century," she observed.
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The Edwardian era or Edwardian period in the United Kingdom is the period covering the reign of King Edward VII, 1901 to 1910, and is sometimes extended beyond Edward's death to include years leading up to World War I.
The life of Edward VII (1841 - 1910), the King of the United Kingdom.
The Edwardian period is frequently extended beyond Edward's death in 1910 to include the years up to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in 1912, the start of World War I in 1914, the end of hostilities with Germany in 1918, or the signing of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919.
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The period corresponded to the reign of Emperor Meiji after 1868, and lasted until his death in 1912.
Mutsuhito, who was to reign until 1912, selected a new reign title-- Meiji, or Enlightened Rule--to mark the beginning of a new era in Japanese history.
The early Meiji period saw the abolition of the domains and the formation of prefectures, the creation of a modern national army, navy and police force, the beginnings of a national railway and national education system.
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KEY TOPICS Carrie Chapman Catt: "An Appeal for Liberty"- Speech; 1915 As Progressive Era reforms advanced from the 1880s to the 1920s, women took on a significant role in political change with specific regard to the ratification of the 19th Amendment, and social conditions with emphasis on women's reproductive rights and restraint from alcohol.
A new generation of college-educated women led the suffrage movement as it gained momentum in the Progressive Era.
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First published in 1960, this text deals with the formation of attitudes, themes and forms which were characteristic of artists and architects working primarily in Europe between 1900 and 1930 under the compulsion of new technological developments in the first machine age.
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A group of companies including Bakersfield, California-based E&B Natural Resources is drilling near Spindletop, a salt dome field in Beaumont where oil gushed more than 150 feet in the air in 1901 at the Lucas well, giving rise to a new oil age.
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World War I, also known as the 1914-18 War ( TV : The War Games ) was a major conflict on Earth fought over four years, four months and four days ( COMIC : The Weeping Angels of Mons ) from 1914 to 1918. ( TV : The War Games ) It was referred to as "the War to End All Wars", ( TV : To the Last Man, PROSE : The Way Through the Woods ) or "the War to End Wars". ( TV : The War Games ) Millions of people men, women and children lost their lives in the war.
The magazine has been around since 1845, and from 1914 to 1918 our editors followed, keenly, some of the social, economic and technological aspects of the "deadly game of grandmother's footsteps" (as the modern historian Max Hastings puts it) that led up to the war and played out during the conflict, from the front lines to the home front.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
The common view among economic historians is that the Great Depression ended with the advent of World War II. Many economists believe that government spending on the war caused or at least accelerated recovery from the Great Depression, though some consider that it did not play a very large role in the recovery.
The two dates most often mentioned as "the beginning of World War II" are July 7, 1937, when the "Marco Polo Bridge Incident" led to a prolonged war between Japan and China, and September 1, 1939, when Germany invaded Poland, which led Britain and France to declare war on Hitler's Nazi state in retaliation.
KEY TOPICS Between 1939 and 1941, while the United States was still neutral, Marshall oversaw the army's expansion from 175,000 to 1.4 million men, and by the time the war ended in 1945 to well over eight million ". between 1937 and 1945, the Japanese military murdered from nearly 3,000,000 to over 10,000,000 people, most likely 6,000,000 Chinese, Indonesians, Koreans, Filipinos, and Indochinese, among others, including Western prisoners of war.
As early as January 1939 Hitler gave vent to his pathological hatred and fear of the Jews before the Reichstag: "If the international Jewish financiers…succeed in plunging the nations once more into a world war the result will be the obliteration of the Jewish race in Europe."
Despite the victory in Europe, World War II was still not over for the Japanese were still fighting.
The name also recognized the Atomic Age - just three days after Sweet Adelines was founded (July 13, 1945), the first nuclear bomb, Trinity, was detonated.
In this novel, in the 31st century, Earth uses a dating system based on what is called the Atomic Era, in which the year one is 1945.
In a 1958 handwritten document on the rise of the atomic age, he later stated, "Now we are faced with total destruction.
What is new about Corkin's argument is his effort to map a specific ideological and doctrinal history of the postwar American empire onto a series of big-budget films dating from 1946-1962.
The extent to which comic books of that era sought to inculcate government policy and community is the subject of Comic Books and the Cold War, 1946-1962: Essays on Graphic Treatment of Communism, the Code and Social Concerns.
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS Love Songs of Carbon has a starting of download the sixties 1960 1969 history of the american Conjugate developing the Having observation with a special, alternate state. national Oral Intention monomer on additional page in Merthyr Tydfil between 1955 to 1970 books in an depression on the Louder than War economy by Michael Hicks.
The Cold War, often dated from 1945 to 1991, was a longstanding state of political and military tension between the Soviet Union and its allies and the West, primarily the United States and the NATO nations.
Do note that USSR in 1945 was Russia post-1917 and included all the various countries that now exist individually (Ukraine, Georgia etc) but after the war they were part of this huge country up until the collapse of the Soviet Union (the other name for the USSR).
The USSR consolidated its control over the states of the Eastern Bloc while the United States began a strategy of global containment to challenge Soviet power, extending military and financial aid to the countries of Western Europe (for example, supporting the anti-Communist side in the Greek Civil War ) and creating the NATO alliance.
Unlike its predecessor, the League of Nations, the U.N. would act militarily, but only with the authorization of its Security Council - an upper tier made up of WWII’s victors: the United States, USSR (Soviet Union), United Kingdom, France, and China (Taiwan between 1949-1971).
They explain the spread of the cold war from Europe to Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America by focusing on decolonization, the rise of newly independent states, and the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and enjoy higher standards of living.
The Soviet Union denounced the Marshall Plan, saying it would infringe upon European sovereignty.
Tensions ran highest, perhaps, during the "first Cold War," which lasted from the mid-1940s through the mid-1960s, after which followed a period of relaxed tensions and increased communication and cooperation, known by the French term détente, until the "second Cold War" interceded from roughly 1979 until the collapse of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.
I dont believe anyone really won this war because it has caused lasting tension between the U.S. and the Soviet Union now present day Russia.
It started after the Second World War and ended in 1991 with the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The Anglo-American assault on the Soviet Union and communism, as well as the bipolar division of the world that ensued, had a profound and lasting global impact.
According to some, the beginning of the Cold War was between 1945 and 1948, while the end was in 1989, with the dispute being over the way Europe was divided.
Russian President Vladimir Putin is frequently cited as calling the collapse of the Soviet Union "the greatest geopolitical catastrophe of the 20th century."
To establish their influence and prove their military superiority the two opposing blocks of the cold war undertook major arms development programs, trying to overtake each other, This resulted in kind of competition between them frequently described by terms such as arms race, nuclear race, and space race.
December 31, 1991, the Soviet Union officially ceased to exist and was replaced with 15 independent states.
T he Space Age began in earnest fifty years ago, with the launch of the Soviet satellite Sputnik on October 4, 1957.
Known as the Yom Kippur War in Israel and the Ramadan or October War in Egypt and Syria, the dramatic events of October 1973 profoundly altered the course of Middle East politics, eventually leading to the 1979 Egyptian-Israeli peace treaty and Cairo’s realignment away from the Soviet Union and toward the United States.
As rearticulated in "Essentials of Post-Cold War Deterrence," a secret policy document drafted by a subcommittee in the U.S. Strategic Command in 1995 (four years after the demise of the Soviet Union), the madman theory posits that the essence of effective nuclear deterrence is to induce "fear" and "terror" in the mind of an adversary, to which end "it hurts to portray ourselves as too fully rational and cool-headed."
POSSIBLY USEFUL The Information Age (also known as the Computer Age, Digital Age, or New Media Age ) is a period in human history characterized by the shift from traditional industry that the Industrial Revolution brought through industrialization, to an economy based on information technology.
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS It is this heritage that finds its way onto Svenska Jazzhistoria Vol. 11 Swedish Jazz History 1970-1979 Jazz Cosmopolit all four disc of it.
KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS KEY TOPICS BBC Online--I love the Eighties Find events and trends year by year!
The 1990s (pronounced "nineteen-nineties" and abbreviated as the " Nineties ") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on January 1, 1990, and ended on December 31, 1999.
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